Ultrasound examination

This exam must be performed several times during examination and treatment. On the one hand ultrasound scan can be useful in the detection of different anatomical abnormalities of the genitalia, and on the other hand it could assess the ovarian follicular status and growth during ovarian stimulation therapy.

Ultrasonography can also indicate if ovulation has occurred. In order to exclude any organic infertility, ultrasound imaging should include the uterine cavity, the fallopian tubes, and the area surrounding the fallopian tubes, to check for any possible adherences. There are several conditions that predispose to organic infertility: previous or chronic infections (after appendicitis, infection of the fallopian tubes, sexually transmitted diseases, abortion followed by complications), or they can be of non-infectious origin, for example the congenital lack of the fallopian tube, benign tumors of the uterus (myoma) or endometriosis.

Hysterosalpingosonography (HyCoSy), which can be performed during the first part of the cycle in ambulatory settings, without hospitalization, is considered to be a modern ultrasound imaging method. During the exam, a thin flexible catheter is passed through the cervix in the endometrial cavity and then an ultrasound contrast agent is injected through the catheter into the uterus and into the fallopian tubes. The transvaginal ultrasound is used to display the image of the womb and both adnexa. The procedure is suitable for assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes, as well as for the detection of anatomical abnormalities of the uterus. The advantages of the method include that it does not require anesthesia, it is a simple and rapid outpatient exam that does not require X-rays and it provides a thorough and quick assessment of the uterus and of the fallopian tubes.

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